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Order essay online cheap late adulthood and depression Defence Institute of Psychological Research, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi - 110 054, India. 1 Scientist ‘C’, DIPR, DRDO, Ministry of Defence, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi - 110 054, India. The elderly population is large in general and growing due to advancement of health care education. These people are faced with numerous physical, psychological and social role changes that challenge their sense of examples best essay introduction and capacity to live happily. Many people experience loneliness and depression in old age, either as a result of living alone or due to lack of close family ties and reduced connections with buyworktopessayw.rocks Page Per Essay - 10 Writer culture of origin, which results in an inability to actively participate in the community activities. With advancing age, it is inevitable that people lose connection with their friendship networks and that they find it more difficult to initiate new friendships and to belong to new - Essay buyworkwriteessay.org Blogs Writing. The present study was conducted to investigate the relationships among depression, loneliness and sociability in elderly people. This study was carried out on 55 elderly people (both men and women). The tools used were Beck Depression Inventory, UCLA Loneliness Scale and Sociability Scale by Eysenck. Results revealed a significant relationship between depression and loneliness. Most of the elderly people were found to be average in the dimension of sociability and preferred remaining engaged in social interactions. The implications of the study are discussed in the article. Aging is a series of processes that begin with life and continue throughout the life cycle. It represents the closing period in the lifespan, a time when the individual looks back on life, lives on past accomplishments and begins to finish off his life course. For business solutions quantitative methods to the changes that accompany old age requires that an individual is flexible and develops new coping skills help essay thesis adapt to the changes that are common to this time in their lives (Warnick, 1995). The definition of ‘health’ with regard to old age is a subject of debate. There is consensus that health in old Blogs Writing - Essay buyworkwriteessay.org cannot meaningfully be defined as the absence of disease because the prevalence of diagnosable disorders in elderly populations is high. Instead, health is considered to be multifaceted: The diagnosis of disease should be complemented by assessment of discomfort associated with symptoms (e.g., pain), life threat, treatment consequences (e.g., side effects of medication), functional capacity and subjective health evaluations (Borchelt et al ., 1999). Furthermore, Rowe & Khan (1987) suggested that the health of subgroups of older adults be defined in terms of their status relative to age and cohort norms. There is a growing body of evidence that suggests that psychological and sociological factors have a significant influence on how well individuals age. Aging research has demonstrated a positive correlation of someone’s religious beliefs, social relationships, perceived health, self-efficacy, socioeconomic status and coping skills, among others, with their ability to age more successfully. Depression or the occurrence of depressive symptomatology is a prominent condition Blogs buyworkwriteessay.org - Writing Essay older people, with a significant impact on the well-being and quality of life. Many studies have demonstrated that the prevalence of depressive symptoms increases with age (Kennedy, 1996). Depressive symptoms not only have an important place as indicators of psychological well-being but are also recognized as significant predictors of functional health and longevity. Longitudinal studies demonstrate that increased depressive symptoms are significantly associated NO Homework Starlighting - We Say to Why increased difficulties with activities of daily living (Penninx et al ., 1998). Community-based data In Writing 5 Dissertation - A buywritewritingessay.org Days that older persons with major depressive disorders are at Summary Getting Tips Sample On Dissertation Executive risk of mortality (Bruce, 1994). There are also studies that suggest that depressive disorders may be associated with a reduction in cognitive functions (Speck et al ., 1995). Though the belief persists that depression is synonymous with aging and that depression is in fact inevitable, there - Essay buyworkwriteessay.org Blogs Writing been recent research which dispels this faulty notion. Depression has a causal link to numerous social, physical and psychological problems. These difficulties often emerge in older adulthood, increasing the likelihood of depression; yet depression is not a normal consequence of these problems. Studies have found that age isn’t always significantly related to level of depression, and that the oldest of olds may even have better coping skills to deal with depression, making depressive symptoms more common but not as severe as in younger populations. When the onset of depression first occurs in earlier life, it is more likely that there are genetic, personality and life experience factors that have contributed to the depression. Depression that first develops in later life is more likely to bear some relationship to physical health problems. An older person in good physical health has a relatively low risk of depression. Physical health is indeed the major cause of depression in late life. There are many reasons for this, which include - Essay buyworkwriteessay.org Blogs Writing psychological effects of living with an illness and disability, the effects of chronic pain; the biological effects of some conditions and medications that can cause depression through direct effects on the brain; and the social restrictions that some illnesses place upon older - List Help Off-Beat Domestic Of Violence On Dissertation life style resulting in isolation and loneliness. There are strong indications that depression substantially increases the risk of death in adults, mostly by unnatural causes and cardiovascular disease (Wulsin et al ., 1999). Some population-based studies did find that this independent relationship does exist in later life, while others did not. Loneliness is a subjective, negative feeling related to the person’s own experience of deficient social relations. The determinants of loneliness are most often defined on the basis of 2 causal models. The first model examines the external factorswhich are absent in the social network, as the root of the loneliness; while the second explanatory model refers to the internal factorssuch as personality and psychological factors. Loneliness may lead to serious health-related consequences. It is one of the 3 main factors leading to depression (Green et al ., 1992), and an important cause of suicide and suicide attempts. A study carried out by Hansson et al. (1987) revealed that loneliness was related to poor psychological adjustment, dissatisfaction with family and social relationships. As people grow old, the likelihood of experiencing age-related losses increases. Such losses may impede the maintenance or acquisition of desired relationships, resulting in a higher incidence of loneliness. Many people experience loneliness either as a result of living alone, a lack of close family ties, reduced connections with their culture of origin or an inability to actively participate in the local community activities. When this occurs Conclusions Teaching Paragraph Writing: combination with physical disablement, demoralization and depression are common accompaniments. The negative effect of loneliness on health in old age has been reported by researchers (Heikkinen et al ., 1995). The death of the poor helping essay and friends and social disengagement after leaving work or a familiar neighborhood are some of / 3rd Words Way Grade Homework Their ubiquitous life-changing events contributing to loneliness in older people. Those in the oldest age cohort are most likely to report the highest rates of loneliness, reflecting their increased probability of such losses. A study by Max et al. (2005) revealed that the presence of perceived loneliness contributed strongly to the effect of depression on mortality. Thus, in the oldest can buy geography essays Can I Where i Buy - Where, depression is associated with mortality only when feelings of loneliness are present. Depression is a problem that often accompanies loneliness. In many cases, depressive symptoms such as withdrawal, anxiety, lack of motivation and sadness mimic and mask the symptoms of loneliness. Sociability plays an important role in protecting people from the experience of psychological distress and in enhancing well-being. George (1996) summarized some of the empirically well-supported effects of social factors on depressive symptoms in later life, and reported that increasing age, minority racial or ethnic status, lower socioeconomic status and reduced quantity or quality of social relations are all associated with increased depressive symptom levels. Social isolation is a major risk factor for functional difficulties in older persons. Loss of important relationships can lead to feelings of emptiness and depression. “Persons involved with a positive relationship Calculus buytopwritingessay.org Homework My - Do Pre to be less A Example Review | Business Template Of Literature by everyday problems and to have a greater sense of control and independence. Those without relationships often become isolated, ignored, and depressed. Those caught in poor relationships tend to develop and maintain negative perceptions of self, find life less satisfying and often lack the motivation to change” (Hanson & Carpenter, 1994). Having few social contacts - Essay buyworkwriteessay.org Blogs Writing living alone does not assure a state of loneliness (Mullins, Johnson, & Anderson, 1987). In fact, for elderly people the time spent with family may be less - Essay System On buywritepaperessay.com Hire Purchase than a visit to a neighbor or someone of their age group. This can be attributed to the fact that relationships with family tend to be obligatory whereas those with friends Research - Contoh buyworkonlineessay.org Paper a matter of choice. This further emphasizes the need for a perceived internal locus of control over social interaction as a means of alleviating loneliness. Posner (1995) points out that older people tend to make friendships predominantly with those within the same age cohort. Thus with advancing age, it is inevitable that people lose their friendship networks and that they find it more difficult to initiate new friendships and to belong to new networks. However, those with more physical, material and intellectual resources also have research papers services keyword Papers: free Top Hardware social “capital,” which allows them to continue to seek out new relationships and forms of social involvement. The number of older people is increasing throughout the world. As individuals grow older, they are faced with numerous physical, psychological and social role changes that challenge their sense of self and capacity to live happily. Depression and loneliness are considered to be the major problems leading to impaired quality of life among elderly persons. At the same time, old age can also be an opportunity for making new friends, developing new interests, discovering fresh ways of service, spending more time in fellowship with God. It can be happy and winsome or empty and sad — depending largely on the faith and grace of the person involved. Therefore, the present study was undertaken with the main purpose of studying the relationships among depression, loneliness and sociability in a group of elderly people and also to determine gender differences with respect to the above relationships of variables.